Optimum Feeding Rate for the Sub-adult Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, Fed Practical Extruded Pellets at Optimum Water Temperature

Seung-Jun Shin, Seung-Jun Shin, Sungchul C. Bai, Sungchul C. Bai, Kyeong-Jun Lee, Kyeong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Dae Kim, Jeong-Dae Kim, Sung-Sam Kim


We investigated the effects of feeding rate on the growth, blood components, and histology of the growing olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We determined the optimum feeding rate (initial fish mean weight = 525.3 ± 7.12 g) at the optimum water temperature. Two replicate groups of fish were fed a commercial diet at rates of 0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, and 0.8% (i.e., to satiation) of body weight (BW) per day. The feeding trial was conducted using a flow-through system, with ten of 1.2-metric-ton aquaria receiving filtered seawater between 20.5 and 24.5°C, for 3 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly greater in fish fed with satiation at 0.8% BW/day compared to fish fed at 0.2% BW/day, and with unfed fish. These parameters were negative, and significantly lower, in the starved fish compared to the fish fed the experimental diet, for all feeding rates. There were no significant differences in WG and SGR among fish fed at 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% BW/day, and among those fed at 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% of BW/day. The histological changes in tissues were not significant in the hepatopancreas, kidney, or anterior intestine of fish fed at 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8% of BW/day. Broken-line regression analysis based on weight gain demonstrated that the optimum feeding rate for an olive flounder weighing 525 g was 0.70% BW/day at optimum water temperature.


Broken-line regression analysis; Feeding rate; Olive flounder; Optimum water temperature

Full Text:



Adebao, O.T., A.M. Balogun, and O.A. Fagbenro. 2000. Effects of feeding rates on growth, body composition and economic performance of juvenile clariid catfish hybrid (female Clarias gariepinus × male Heterobranchus bidorsalis). J. Aquac. Trop.,15:109-117.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, U.S.A.

Brett, J.R. and T.D.D. Groves. 1979. Bioenergetics. In: Hoar, W.S., J.J. Randall and J.R. Brett (Eds.), Fish Physiology. Academic Press, New York, USA, pp. 279-352.

Brown, B.A. 1980. Routine hematology procedure. In: Brown, B.A. (Ed.), Hematology: Principles and Procedures. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 71-112.

Cho, S.H., S.M. Lee, B.H. Park, and S.M. Lee. 2006. Effect of feeding ratio on growth and body composition of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, fed extruded pellets during the summer season. Aquaculture, 251: 78-84.

Cho, S.H., S.M. Lee, B.H. Park, S.C. Ji, C.Y. Choi, J.H. Lee, Y.C. Kim, and S.Y. Oh. 2007. Effect of daily feeding ratio on growth and body composition of subadult olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, fed an extruded diet during the summer season. J. World Aquac. Soc., 38: 68-73.

Deng, D.F., S. Koshio, S. Yokoyama, S.C. Bai, Q. Shao, Y. Cui, and S.S.O. Hung. 2003. Effects of feeding rate on growth performance of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae. Aquaculture, 217: 589-598.

Fiogbe, E.D. and P. Kestemont. 2003. Optimum daily ration for Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. reared at its optimum growing temperature. Aquaculture, 216: 243-252.

Hatlen, B., B. Grisdale-Helland, and S.J. Helland. 2005. Growth, feed utilization and body composition in two size groups of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) fed diets differing in protein and carbohydrate content. Aquaculture, 249: 401-408.

Hung, S.S.O., P.B. Lutes, A.A. Shqueir, and F.S. Conte. 1993. Effect of feeding rate and water temperature on growth of juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Aquaculture, 115: 297-303.

Kim, K.D., Y.J. Kang, K.W. Kim, and K.M. Kim. 2007. Effects of feeding rate on growth and body composition of juvenile flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J. World Aquac. Soc., 38: 169-173.

Kim, K.W., N.Y. Hwang, M.H. Son, K.D. Kim, J.H. Lee, Y. Liu, Y.H. Yun, G.H. Park, S.S. Kim, K.J. Lee, and S.C. Bai. 2010. Optimum feeding rates in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed practical expanded pellet at low and high water temperatures. Kor. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 44: 345-351.

Kim, K.W., S.S. Kim, J.W. Kim, M.H. Son, M.H, K.D. Kim, S.C. Bai, and K.J. Lee. 2011. Effect of feeding rate and pellet water-soaking on growth, blood components, and histology of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Kor. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 44: 490-498.

Kim, S.S., K.W. Kim, K.D. Kim, B.J. Lee, H.S. Han, J.W. Kim, S.C. Bai, and K.J. Lee. 2014. Optimum feeding rate in growing olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed practical extruded pellet at optimum water temperature (21℃). J. Fish Mar. Sci. Edu., 26: 787-795.

Lee, J.H., S.S. Kim, K.W. Kim, K.D. Kim, B.J. Lee, J.H. Lee, H.S. Han, J.W. Kim, S.Y. Kim, and K.J. Lee . 2014. Optimum feeding rate in growing olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed practical expanded pellet at optimum water temperature. Kor. J. Fish Aquat. Sci., 47: 234-240.

Li, M. and R.T. Lovell. 1992a. Comparison of satiate feeding and restricted feeding of channel catfish with various concentrations of dietary protein in production ponds. Aquaculture, 103: 165-175.

Li, M. and R.T. Lovell. 1992b. Effect of dietary protein concentration on nitrogenous waste in intensively fed catfish ponds. J. World Aquac. Soc., 23: 122-127.

Li, M.H., B.B. Manning, and E.H. Obinson. 2004. Effect of daily feed intake on feed efficiency of juvenile channel catfish. North American Journal Aquaculture, 29: 156-161.

Mihelakakis. A., C. Tsolkas, and T. Yoshimatsu. 2002. Optimization of feeding rate for hatchery-produced juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. J. World Aquac. Soc., 33: 169-175.

Minton, RV. 1978. Responses of channel catfish fed diets of two nutrient concentrations at three rates in ponds. Master’s Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Al, USA.

Ng, W.K., K.S. Lu, R. Hashim, and A. Ali. 2000. Effects of feeding rate on growth, feed utilization and body composition of a tropical bagrid catfish. Aquacult. Int., 8: 19-29.

Ozorio, RODA, C. Andrade, VMFA. Timoteo, LEC. Conceicao, and LMP. Valente. 2009. Effects of feeding levels on growth response, body composition, and energy expenditure in blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, Juveniles. J. World Aquac. Soc., 40: 95-103.

Robbins, K.R., H.W. Norton, and D.H. Baker. 1979. Estimation of nutrient requirements from growth data. J. Nutr.,109: 1710-1714.

Skalli. A., M.C. Hidalgo, E. Abellan, M. Arizcun, and G. Cardenete. 2004. Effects of the dietary protein/lipid ratio on growth and nutrient utilization in common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) at different growth stages. Aquaculture, 235: 1-11.

Statistics Korea, 2014. Statistic Database for Aquaculture production. http://kostat.go.kr. Accessed July 02, 2014.

Sweilum, M.A., M.M. Abdella, and S.A.S. El-Din. 2005. Effect of dietary protein-energy levels and fish initial sizes on growth rate, development and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquac. Res., 36: 1414-1421.

Van Ham, E.H., M.H.G. Berntssen, A.K. Imsland, A.C. Parpoura, S.E. Wenderlaar Bonger, and S.O. Stefansson. 2003. The influence of temperature and ration on growth, feed conversion, body composition and nutrient retention of juvenile turbot (Scohthalmus maximus). Aquaculture, 217: 547-558.

Webster, C.D., K.R. Thompson, A.M. Morgan, E.J. Grisby, and S. Dasgupta. 2001. Feeding frequency affects growth, not fillet composition, of juvenile sinshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis, grown in cages. J. World Aquac. Soc., 32: 79-88.

Yamada, R. 1985. Pond production systems. In: Lannan J.E., R.O. Smitherman, and G. Tchobanoglous (Eds.), Stocking Practices in Pond Fish Culture. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oreogon, USA, pp. 85-96.

Zoccarato. I., G. Benatti, M.L. Bianchini, M. Boccignone, A. Conti, R. Napolitano, and G.B. Palmegiano. 1994. Differences in performance, flesh composition and water output quality in relation to density and feeding levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), farming. Aquac. Res., 25: 639-647.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21534/ai.v19i2.122


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018