Fatty Acid Profile of Hepatopancreas and Oocyte of Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Fed Modified-commercial Diet by Supplementing Vitamin C and E

Usman Usman, Kamaruddin Kamaruddin, Asda Laining, Ike Trismawanti


Vitamin C and E have important roles in the process of reproduction, immune system, and anti-oxidants to protect cell membrane lipid, and the circulation of essential fatty acid in the body of the aquatic organism including shrimp. The aims of this study was to analyze the effect of vitamin C and E supplementation in modified-commercial diet on the fatty acids profile of hepatopancreas and oocyte of tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The experimental treatments were: modified-commercial diet by supplementing with vitamin C (500 mg/kg) and E (300 mg/kg) (PS), and modified-commercial diet without vitamins supplementation (PK). Cultured tiger shrimp were used as the animal with initial weight of 43.1 ± 5.1 g (mean±STD) for females and 41.9 ± 4.4 g for males. The shrimps were cultured in two of  1000 m2 concrete ponds with a density of 100 shrimp / pond. During three months culture in the pond, they were fed the test at rate of 3% biomass/day. When the tiger shrimp reached the weight over 90 g for females and > 70 g for males, then the shrimp were  transferred to concrete tanks for oocyte maturation evaluation. In maturation tank, the shrimp fed test diets (pellet) combined with fresh food (squid) as much as 3% (dry basis) at combination ratio of 50% : 50%. Shrimp reaching oocyte development stage III  were dissected and sampled for hepatopancreas and oocytes for analysis of fatty acid profile. The results showed that the hepatopancrea and oocyte fatty acids contents were higher in the tiger shrimp fed PS compared to the tiger shrimp fed PK. The poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) especially for arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, and eicosapentaenoic acid were higher in shrimp fed with PS than the shrimp fed PK. Despite higher total fatty acid contents in hepatopancreas than  in oocyte for the both treatments, the esensial fatty acid arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, and eicosapentaenoic acid were higher in oocyte than in hepatopancreas of the shrimp. This suggested that these three types of PUFA played important role for oocyte development for female reproduction.  Supplementation of vitamin C and E in the test diet had an effect on increasing PUFA content in hepatopancreas and oocytes of tiger shrimp.


: Fatty acid profile; gonada; hepatopancreas; tiger shrimp; vitamin C and E.

Full Text:



AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Gaithersberg, Maryland, USA.1141 pp.

Bai, S.C and K.J. Lee. 1998. Different levels of dietary DL-a-tocophery affect the vitamin status of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Aquaculture, 168(1-4): 415-444.

Binh, T., N., S. Koshio, K. Sakiyama, S. Harakawa, J. Gao, R.E. Mamauag, M. Ishikawa, and S. Yokoyama. 2012. Effects of dietary vitamin C and E and their interaction on reproductive performance, larval quality and tissue vitamin contents in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate. Aquaculture, 334-337: 73-81.

Cavalli, R.O., F.M.M. Batista, P. Lavens, P. Sorgeloos, H.J. Nelis, and A.P. De Leenheer. 2003. Effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin C and E on maternal performance and larval quality of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture, 227 (1-4): 131-146.

Chien, L.T. and D.F. Hwang. 2001. Effects of thermal stess and vitamin C on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid composition in the liver of thrnfish Terapon jarbua. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B., 128: 91-97.

Coman, G.J., S.J. Arnold, M. Barclay, and D.M. Smith, 2011. Effect of arachidonic acid supplementation on reproductive performance of tank-domesticated Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Nutrition 17, 141-151.

Combs, G.F.Jr. 1992. The Vitamin: Fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. Academic Press, New York, 525 p.

Cuzon, G. and J. Guillaume. 1997. Energy and protein: energy ratio. In Crustacean Nutrition – Advances in Word Aquaculture VI (eds. By L. D’Abraamo, D. Conklin & D Akiyama). Pp. 51-70. World Aquaculture Society, Los Angeles, USA.

Gao, J., S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Yokoyama, N. Daisuke, and T.J. Ren. 2013. Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, fed dietary oxidized fish oil. J. World Aquac. Soc. 44: 536-546.

Gao, J., S. Koshio, M. Ishikawa, S. Yokoyama, and R.E.P. Mamauag. 2014. Interactive effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and reduction of oxidative stress in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed dietary oxidized fish oil. Aquaculture, 422-423: 84-90.

Guillaume, J., S. Kaushik, P. Bergot, and R. Metailler. 1999. Nutrition and Feeding of Fish and Crustaceans. INRA, IFRAMER, Springer, UK. 408 p.

Halver, J.E. 2002. The vitamins. In: Halver, J.E. and R.W. Hardy (Editors). Fish Nutrition. New York: Academic Press, hlm. 453504.

Harrison, K.E. 1990. The role of nutrition in maturation, reproduction, and embryonic development of decapod crustaceans. Journal of Shellfish Research, 9: 1-28.

Hepher, B. 1990. Nutrition of pond fishes. Cambridge University Pres, New York.


Hoa, N.D. 2009. Domestication of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in recirculation systems in Vietnam. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Belgium.

Izquierdo, M, and H. Fernandez-Palacios. 1997. Nutritional requirement of marine fish larvae and broodstock. Cahes Option Mediterranean 22: 243-264.

Ji, H., Om, AD., T. Yoshimatsu, M. Hayashi, T. Umino, H. Nakagawa, M. Asano, and A. Nakagawa. 2003. Effect of dietary vitamins C and E fortification on lipid metabolism in red sea bream Pagrus major and black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Fisheries Science, 69:1001-1009

Laining, A., Usman, and I. Trismawanti. 2016a. Dietary carotenoid in prematuration diet enhanced gonadal maturation and total carotenoid in several tissues of pond reared black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Book of Abstract of Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2016, 26-29 April 2016, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Laining, A., I. Trismawanti, Kamaruddin and Makmur. 2017. Carotenoid-enriched diet for pre-maturation stage of pond-reared tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Part I. Effect on growth, pigmentation and whole body nutrient content. Indonesian Aquaculture Journal, 12 (2): 59-66.

Laining, A., Rachmansyah, Usman, N.N. Palinggi, Kamaruddin, S. Lante, I. Trismawanti, W. Santiadjinaata, Tamsil, Rosni, Umar and Ramadan. 2016b. Formulasi pakan prematurasi udang windu. Laporan Tahunan. Balai Renelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Payau, Maros. 33 halaman.

Li, M.H., D.J. Wise, M.R. Johnson, and E.H. Robinson. 1994. Dietary manhande oil reduce resistence of channel catfish (Ichtalurus punctatus) to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Aquaculture, 128:335-344.

Martin, D. W., P.A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, dan D.K. Granner. 1990. Biokimia (Harver’s review of biochemistry). Alih bahasa oleh Iyan Darmawan. EGC. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran, Jakarta. 772 hal.

Reitan, K.I., J.R. Rainuzzo, G. Oie, and Y. Olsen. 1997. A review of the nutritional effects of algae in marine fish larvae. Aquaculture, 155:207-221.

Sargent, J.R., L.A. McEvoy, L.A., and J.G. Bell. 1997. Requirements, presentation and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine fish larval feeds. Aquaculture, 155:117-127.

Sargent, J.R., J.G. Bell, L.A. McEvoy, D.R. Tocher, and A. Estevez. 1999. Recent developments in the essential fatty acid nutrition of fish. Aquaculture, 177: 191–199.

Sargent, J.R., D.R. Tocher, and J.D. Bell. 2002. The Lipid. In: Halver, J.E & R.W. Hardy, (Eds). Fish Nutrition. New York: Academic Press, pp. 181257.

Stephan, G., J. Guillaume, and F. Lamour. 1995. Lipid peroxidation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) tissue: effect of dietary vitamin E and dietary n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated. Aquaculture, 130: 251-268.

Tocher, D.R., G. Mourente, A. Van der Eecken, J.O. Evjemo, E. Diaz, J.G. Bell, I. Geurden, P. Lavens, and Y. Olsen. 2002. Effects of dietary vitamin E on antioxidant defence mechanisms of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) and sea bream (Sparus auratus L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 8: 195-207.

Tocher, D.R. 2003. Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Review in Fisheries Science 11:107-184.

Wang, Z., K. Mai, Z. Liufu, H. Ma, W. Xu, Q. Ai, W. Zhang, B. Tan, and X. Wang. 2006. Effect of hight dietary intake vitamin C and n-3 HUFA on immune response and resistence to Edwardsiella tarda challenge in Japanese flounder (Paralichhthys olivaceus, Temminck). Aquaculture, 37: 618-692.


  • There are currently no refbacks.